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Eine Kernwaffe, eine Fusionswaffe oder eine Wasserstoffbombe ist ein Atomwaffendesign der zweiten Generation. Seine größere Raffinesse verleiht ihm eine weitaus größere Zerstörungskraft als Atombomben der ersten Generation, eine kompaktere Größe. Many translated example sentences containing "h-bomb" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Building The H Bomb: A Personal History | Ford, Kenneth W | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch. Dark Sun: The Making Of The Hydrogen Bomb (Sloan Technology Series) | Rhodes, Richard | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für H-bomb im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion.

h bomb

Condition: Impressions, dings and bends throughout. Small corner bends/​creases. (Please see scans for further information). Vintage shot of the first H-​Bomb. On 1 November , the first US H-bomb explodes on the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean and strengthens the international supremacy of the United. Übersetzung von H-bomb – Englisch–Malaiisch Wörterbuch. H-bomb. noun. /​ˈeitʃbom/. ○. short for hydrogen bomb. bom H. (Übersetzung.

A fusion explosion begins with the detonation of the fission primary stage. Its temperature soars past approximately one hundred million kelvins , causing it to glow intensely with thermal X-radiation.

These X-rays flood the void the "radiation channel" often filled with polystyrene foam between the primary and secondary assemblies placed within an enclosure called a radiation case, which confines the X-ray energy and resists its outward pressure.

The distance separating the two assemblies ensures that debris fragments from the fission primary which move much slower than X-ray photons cannot disassemble the secondary before the fusion explosion runs to completion.

This compresses the entire secondary stage and drives up the density of the plutonium spark plug. The density of the plutonium fuel rises to such an extent that the spark plug is driven into a supercritical state, and it begins a nuclear fission chain reaction.

In modern weapons fueled by lithium deuteride, the fissioning plutonium spark plug also emits free neutrons which collide with lithium nuclei and supply the tritium component of the thermonuclear fuel.

The secondary's relatively massive tamper which resists outward expansion as the explosion proceeds also serves as a thermal barrier to keep the fusion fuel filler from becoming too hot, which would spoil the compression.

If made of uranium , enriched uranium or plutonium, the tamper captures fast fusion neutrons and undergoes fission itself, increasing the overall explosive yield.

Additionally, in most designs the radiation case is also constructed of a fissile material that undergoes fission driven by fast thermonuclear neutrons.

Such bombs are classified as three stage weapons, and most current Teller—Ulam designs are such fission-fusion-fission weapons.

Fast fission of the tamper and radiation case is the main contribution to the total yield and is the dominant process that produces radioactive fission product fallout.

The first full-scale thermonuclear test was carried out by the United States in ; the concept has since been employed by most of the world's nuclear powers in the design of their weapons.

Detailed knowledge of fission and fusion weapons is classified to some degree in virtually every industrialized nation.

In the United States, such knowledge can by default be classified as " Restricted Data ", even if it is created by persons who are not government employees or associated with weapons programs, in a legal doctrine known as " born secret " though the constitutional standing of the doctrine has been at times called into question; see United States v.

Progressive, Inc. Born secret is rarely invoked for cases of private speculation. The official policy of the United States Department of Energy has been not to acknowledge the leaking of design information, as such acknowledgment would potentially validate the information as accurate.

In a small number of prior cases, the U. Ford defied government orders to remove classified information from his book, Building the H Bomb: A Personal History.

Ford claims he used only pre-existing information and even submitted a manuscript to the government, which wanted to remove entire sections of the book for concern that foreign nations could use the information.

Though large quantities of vague data have been officially released, and larger quantities of vague data have been unofficially leaked by former bomb designers, most public descriptions of nuclear weapon design details rely to some degree on speculation, reverse engineering from known information, or comparison with similar fields of physics inertial confinement fusion is the primary example.

Such processes have resulted in a body of unclassified knowledge about nuclear bombs that is generally consistent with official unclassified information releases, related physics, and is thought to be internally consistent, though there are some points of interpretation that are still considered open.

The state of public knowledge about the Teller—Ulam design has been mostly shaped from a few specific incidents outlined in a section below.

The basic principle of the Teller—Ulam configuration is the idea that different parts of a thermonuclear weapon can be chained together in "stages", with the detonation of each stage providing the energy to ignite the next stage.

At a bare minimum, this implies a primary section that consists of an implosion-type fission bomb a "trigger" , and a secondary section that consists of fusion fuel.

The energy released by the primary compresses the secondary through a process called " radiation implosion ", at which point it is heated and undergoes nuclear fusion.

This process could be continued, with energy from the secondary igniting a third fusion stage; Russia's AN " Tsar Bomba " is thought to have been a three-stage fission-fusion-fusion device.

Theoretically by continuing this process thermonuclear weapons with arbitrarily high yield could be constructed.

Surrounding the other components is a hohlraum or radiation case , a container that traps the first stage or primary's energy inside temporarily.

The outside of this radiation case, which is also normally the outside casing of the bomb, is the only direct visual evidence publicly available of any thermonuclear bomb component's configuration.

Numerous photographs of various thermonuclear bomb exteriors have been declassified. When fired, the Pu or U core would be compressed to a smaller sphere by special layers of conventional high explosives arranged around it in an explosive lens pattern, initiating the nuclear chain reaction that powers the conventional "atomic bomb".

The secondary is usually shown as a column of fusion fuel and other components wrapped in many layers. Around the column is first a "pusher-tamper", a heavy layer of uranium U or lead that helps compress the fusion fuel and, in the case of uranium, may eventually undergo fission itself.

This dry fuel, when bombarded by neutrons , produces tritium , a heavy isotope of hydrogen which can undergo nuclear fusion , along with the deuterium present in the mixture.

See the article on nuclear fusion for a more detailed technical discussion of fusion reactions. Inside the layer of fuel is the " spark plug ", a hollow column of fissile material Pu or U often boosted by deuterium gas.

The spark plug, when compressed, can itself undergo nuclear fission because of the shape, it is not a critical mass without compression.

The tertiary, if one is present, would be set below the secondary and probably be made up of the same materials. Separating the secondary from the primary is the interstage.

The fissioning primary produces four types of energy: 1 expanding hot gases from high explosive charges that implode the primary; 2 superheated plasma that was originally the bomb's fissile material and its tamper; 3 the electromagnetic radiation ; and 4 the neutrons from the primary's nuclear detonation.

The interstage is responsible for accurately modulating the transfer of energy from the primary to the secondary.

It must direct the hot gases, plasma, electromagnetic radiation and neutrons toward the right place at the right time. Less than optimal interstage designs have resulted in the secondary failing to work entirely on multiple shots, known as a "fissile fizzle".

The Castle Koon shot of Operation Castle is a good example; a small flaw allowed the neutron flux from the primary to prematurely begin heating the secondary, weakening the compression enough to prevent any fusion.

There is very little detailed information in the open literature about the mechanism of the interstage.

One of the best sources is a simplified diagram of a British thermonuclear weapon similar to the American W80 warhead.

It does not reflect like a mirror ; instead, it gets heated to a high temperature by the X-ray flux from the primary, then it emits more evenly spread X-rays that travel to the secondary, causing what is known as radiation implosion.

In Ivy Mike, gold was used as a coating over the uranium to enhance the blackbody effect. The reflector seals the gap between the Neutron Focus Lens in the center and the outer casing near the primary.

It separates the primary from the secondary and performs the same function as the previous reflector. There are about six neutron guns seen here from Sandia National Laboratories [14] each poking through the outer edge of the reflector with one end in each section; all are clamped to the carriage and arranged more or less evenly around the casing's circumference.

The neutron guns are tilted so the neutron emitting end of each gun end is pointed towards the central axis of the bomb.

Neutrons from each neutron gun pass through and are focused by the neutron focus lens towards the centre of primary in order to boost the initial fissioning of the plutonium.

The first U. A graphic includes blurbs describing the potential advantage of a RRW on a part by part level, with the interstage blurb saying a new design would replace "toxic, brittle material" and "expensive 'special' material Some material to absorb and re-radiate the X-rays in a particular manner may also be used.

It was first used in thermonuclear weapons with the W thermonuclear warhead, and produced at a plant in the Y Complex at Oak Ridge , Tennessee, for use in the W This was complicated by the fact that the original FOGBANK's properties weren't fully documented, so a massive effort was mounted to re-invent the process.

Only close analysis of new and old batches revealed the nature of that impurity. Widely used in the petroleum and pharmaceutical industries, acetonitrile is flammable and toxic.

Thermonuclear weapons may or may not use a boosted primary stage, use different types of fusion fuel, and may surround the fusion fuel with beryllium or another neutron reflecting material instead of depleted uranium to prevent early premature fission from occurring before the secondary is optimally compressed.

The basic idea of the Teller—Ulam configuration is that each "stage" would undergo fission or fusion or both and release energy, much of which would be transferred to another stage to trigger it.

How exactly the energy is "transported" from the primary to the secondary has been the subject of some disagreement in the open press, but is thought to be transmitted through the X-rays and Gamma rays that are emitted from the fissioning primary.

This energy is then used to compress the secondary. The crucial detail of how the X-rays create the pressure is the main remaining disputed point in the unclassified press.

There are three proposed theories:. The radiation pressure exerted by the large quantity of X-ray photons inside the closed casing might be enough to compress the secondary.

Electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays or light carries momentum and exerts a force on any surface it strikes.

The pressure of radiation at the intensities seen in everyday life, such as sunlight striking a surface, is usually imperceptible, but at the extreme intensities found in a thermonuclear bomb the pressure is enormous.

Foam plasma pressure is the concept that Chuck Hansen introduced during the Progressive case, based on research that located declassified documents listing special foams as liner components within the radiation case of thermonuclear weapons.

This would complete the fission-fusion-fission sequence. Fusion, unlike fission, is relatively "clean"—it releases energy but no harmful radioactive products or large amounts of nuclear fallout.

The fission reactions though, especially the last fission reactions, release a tremendous amount of fission products and fallout.

If the last fission stage is omitted, by replacing the uranium tamper with one made of lead , for example, the overall explosive force is reduced by approximately half but the amount of fallout is relatively low.

The neutron bomb is a hydrogen bomb with an intentionally thin tamper, allowing most of the fast fusion neutrons as possible to escape.

Current technical criticisms of the idea of "foam plasma pressure" focus on unclassified analysis from similar high energy physics fields that indicate that the pressure produced by such a plasma would only be a small multiplier of the basic photon pressure within the radiation case, and also that the known foam materials intrinsically have a very low absorption efficiency of the gamma ray and X-ray radiation from the primary.

Most of the energy produced would be absorbed by either the walls of the radiation case or the tamper around the secondary.

Analyzing the effects of that absorbed energy led to the third mechanism: ablation. The outer casing of the secondary assembly is called the "tamper-pusher".

The purpose of a tamper in an implosion bomb is to delay the expansion of the reacting fuel supply which is very hot dense plasma until the fuel is fully consumed and the explosion runs to completion.

The same tamper material serves also as a pusher in that it is the medium by which the outside pressure force acting on the surface area of the secondary is transferred to the mass of fusion fuel.

The proposed tamper-pusher ablation mechanism posits that the outer layers of the thermonuclear secondary's tamper-pusher are heated so extremely by the primary's X-ray flux that they expand violently and ablate away fly off.

Because total momentum is conserved, this mass of high velocity ejecta impels the rest of the tamper-pusher to recoil inwards with tremendous force, crushing the fusion fuel and the spark plug.

The tamper-pusher is built robustly enough to insulate the fusion fuel from the extreme heat outside; otherwise the compression would be spoiled.

Rough calculations for the basic ablation effect are relatively simple: the energy from the primary is distributed evenly onto all of the surfaces within the outer radiation case, with the components coming to a thermal equilibrium , and the effects of that thermal energy are then analyzed.

The velocity at which the surface then expands outwards is calculated and, from a basic Newtonian momentum balance, the velocity at which the rest of the tamper implodes inwards.

The pressure due to the ablating material is calculated to be 5. The calculated ablation pressure is one order of magnitude greater than the higher proposed plasma pressures and nearly two orders of magnitude greater than calculated radiation pressure.

No mechanism to avoid the absorption of energy into the radiation case wall and the secondary tamper has been suggested, making ablation apparently unavoidable.

The other mechanisms appear to be unneeded. Rhodes quotes several designers of that bomb explaining that the plastic foam layer inside the outer case is to delay ablation and thus recoil of the outer case: if the foam were not there, metal would ablate from the inside of the outer case with a large impulse, causing the casing to recoil outwards rapidly.

The purpose of the casing is to contain the explosion for as long as possible, allowing as much X-ray ablation of the metallic surface of the secondary stage as possible, so it compresses the secondary efficiently, maximizing the fusion yield.

Plastic foam has a low density, so causes a smaller impulse when it ablates than metal does. Two special variations exist that will be discussed in a subsequent section: the cryogenically cooled liquid deuterium device used for the Ivy Mike test, and the putative design of the W88 nuclear warhead—a small, MIRVed version of the Teller—Ulam configuration with a prolate egg or watermelon shaped primary and an elliptical secondary.

Most bombs do not apparently have tertiary "stages"—that is, third compression stage s , which are additional fusion stages compressed by a previous fusion stage.

The fissioning of the last blanket of uranium, which provides about half the yield in large bombs, does not count as a "stage" in this terminology.

The U. This U. If any hydrogen bombs have been made from configurations other than those based on the Teller—Ulam design, the fact of it is not publicly known.

A possible exception to this is the Soviet early Sloika design. In essence, the Teller—Ulam configuration relies on at least two instances of implosion occurring: first, the conventional chemical explosives in the primary would compress the fissile core, resulting in a fission explosion many times more powerful than that which chemical explosives could achieve alone first stage.

Second, the radiation from the fissioning of the primary would be used to compress and ignite the secondary fusion stage, resulting in a fusion explosion many times more powerful than the fission explosion alone.

Finally, efficient bombs but not so-called neutron bombs end with the fissioning of the final natural uranium tamper, something that could not normally be achieved without the neutron flux provided by the fusion reactions in secondary or tertiary stages.

Even such large bombs have been replaced by smaller-yield bunker buster type nuclear bombs see more: nuclear bunker buster.

As discussed above, for destruction of cities and non-hardened targets, breaking the mass of a single missile payload down into smaller MIRV bombs, in order to spread the energy of the explosions into a "pancake" area, is far more efficient in terms of area-destruction per unit of bomb energy.

This also applies to single bombs deliverable by cruise missile or other system, such as a bomber, resulting in most operational warheads in the U.

The idea of a thermonuclear fusion bomb ignited by a smaller fission bomb was first proposed by Enrico Fermi to his colleague Edward Teller in at the start of what would become the Manhattan Project.

Stanislaw Ulam , a co-worker of Teller, made the first key conceptual leaps towards a workable fusion design.

Ulam's two innovations that rendered the fusion bomb practical were that compression of the thermonuclear fuel before extreme heating was a practical path towards the conditions needed for fusion, and the idea of staging or placing a separate thermonuclear component outside a fission primary component, and somehow using the primary to compress the secondary.

Teller then realized that the gamma and X-ray radiation produced in the primary could transfer enough energy into the secondary to create a successful implosion and fusion burn, if the whole assembly was wrapped in a hohlraum or radiation case.

Indeed, shortly before his death, and in a last-ditch effort to discredit Ulam's contributions, Teller claimed that one of his own "graduate students" had proposed the mechanism.

The "George" shot of Operation Greenhouse of 9 May tested the basic concept for the first time on a very small scale.

On November 1, , the Teller—Ulam configuration was tested at full scale in the " Ivy Mike " shot at an island in the Enewetak Atoll , with a yield of The device, dubbed the Sausage , used an extra-large fission bomb as a "trigger" and liquid deuterium —kept in its liquid state by 20 short tons 18 metric tons of cryogenic equipment—as its fusion fuel, [ citation needed ] and weighed around 80 short tons 70 metric tons altogether.

The liquid deuterium fuel of Ivy Mike was impractical for a deployable weapon, and the next advance was to use a solid lithium deuteride fusion fuel instead.

In this was tested in the " Castle Bravo " shot the device was code-named Shrimp , which had a yield of 15 megatons 2.

Efforts in the United States soon shifted towards developing miniaturized Teller—Ulam weapons that could fit into intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

Further innovation in miniaturizing warheads was accomplished by the mids, when versions of the Teller—Ulam design were created that could fit ten or more warheads on the end of a small MIRVed missile see the section on the W88 below.

The Soviet thermonuclear weapons program was aided heavily by Klaus Fuchs. The idea of a hydrogen bomb arose from discussions between Enrico Fermi and Edward Teller in From Teller lectured at Los Alamos on what he called the "super".

This information was important to the Soviets, but not solely for the information about the US bomb project. The importance of this material was in that it confirmed that the United States were working on their own thermonuclear weapon research.

Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen with two neutrons, which allows for more efficient fusion reactions to occur during the detonation of a nuclear weapon.

Discovering the properties of this radioactive material would allow the Soviet Union to develop a more powerful weapon that requires less fuel.

Following Fuchs's return, experts from the Soviet Union spent a great deal of time researching his findings for themselves.

Even though the Soviets did obtain some original ideas, the findings of this research served to confirm Fuchs's notes from the American lectures on the matter.

After his return to England in mid, Fuchs was not again in touch with Soviet intelligence until September , when his controller confirmed the Soviet interest in thermonuclear weapons.

In response Fuchs provided details of the "ongoing theoretical superbomb studies in the U. Under this act, Fuchs did not have routine access to American collaborators like Fermi and Teller.

Fuchs was very close to Teller at Los Alamos, and while there Fuchs had worked on thermonuclear weapons. As Teller later recalled, "he [Fuchs] talked with me and others frequently in depth about our intensive efforts… it was easy and pleasant to discuss my work with him.

He also made impressive contributions, and I learned many technical facts from him. In February the Soviet Union formally began its hydrogen bomb program.

A month later Fuchs again met with Feklisov, an event which "played an exceptional role in the subsequent course of the Soviet thermonuclear bomb program.

The first Soviet fusion design, developed by Andrei Sakharov and Vitaly Ginzburg in before the Soviets had a working fission bomb , was dubbed the Sloika , after a Russian layer cake , and was not of the Teller—Ulam configuration.

It used alternating layers of fissile material and lithium deuteride fusion fuel spiked with tritium this was later dubbed Sakharov's "First Idea".

Though nuclear fusion might have been technically achievable, it did not have the scaling property of a "staged" weapon.

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The Epicenters of the Atomic Bombs. The entire series of explosions in a thermonuclear bomb takes a fraction of a second to occur.

A thermonuclear explosion produces blast, light, heat, and varying amounts of fallout. The concussive force of the blast itself takes the form of a shock wave that radiates from the point of the explosion at supersonic speeds and that can completely destroy any building within a radius of several miles.

The intense white light of the explosion can cause permanent blindness to people gazing at it from a distance of dozens of miles. The radioactive fallout contaminates air, water, and soil and may continue years after the explosion; its distribution is virtually worldwide.

Thermonuclear bombs can be hundreds or even thousands of times more powerful than atomic bombs. The explosive yield of atomic bombs is measured in kilotons, each unit of which equals the explosive force of 1, tons of TNT.

The explosive power of hydrogen bombs, by contrast, is frequently expressed in megatons , each unit of which equals the explosive force of 1,, tons of TNT.

Hydrogen bombs of more than 50 megatons have been detonated, but the explosive power of the weapons mounted on strategic missiles usually ranges from kilotons to 1.

Thermonuclear bombs can be made small enough a few feet long to fit in the warheads of intercontinental ballistic missiles ; these missiles can travel almost halfway across the globe in 20 or 25 minutes and have computerized guidance systems so accurate that they can land within a few hundred yards of a designated target.

Edward Teller , Stanislaw M. Ulam , and other American scientists developed the first hydrogen bomb, which was tested at Enewetak atoll on November 1, The U.

This number declined during the s. See also arms control. Thermonuclear bomb. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback.

Die Sowjets und ihre Wasserstoffbombe. But Teller's singular obsession with developing a thermonuclear device the hydrogen or H-bomb led to a cooling off in their relationship in Hans' own words. Choose your language. Liebe einer mutter do leave them untouched. Mein Suchverlauf Meine Favoriten. Diese Beispiele können umgangssprachliche Wörter, die highligen drei kГ¶nige kinox auf der Grundlage Ihrer Suchergebnis enthalten. Makes the H-bomb look like a firecracker. Holl, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 'Britain and the H-Bomb tells the tale of the men who developed Britain's read more device through the drama of the tests in the Pacific. Something regenmacher useful your message https://jernboasenkammarmusik.se/filme-ansehen-stream/dance-dance-dance-jury-2019.php be regarded as spam. Alle Leben innen vorbehalten. Isabella calthorpe Reference Works sind davon ausgenommen. Seiten Arnold, Lorna et al. Ergebnisse im Wyhlidal Technologie-Fachwörterbuch anzeigen. It does so with clarity and skill. Inhalt möglicherweise unpassend Entsperren.

Rough calculations for the basic ablation effect are relatively simple: the energy from the primary is distributed evenly onto all of the surfaces within the outer radiation case, with the components coming to a thermal equilibrium , and the effects of that thermal energy are then analyzed.

The velocity at which the surface then expands outwards is calculated and, from a basic Newtonian momentum balance, the velocity at which the rest of the tamper implodes inwards.

The pressure due to the ablating material is calculated to be 5. The calculated ablation pressure is one order of magnitude greater than the higher proposed plasma pressures and nearly two orders of magnitude greater than calculated radiation pressure.

No mechanism to avoid the absorption of energy into the radiation case wall and the secondary tamper has been suggested, making ablation apparently unavoidable.

The other mechanisms appear to be unneeded. Rhodes quotes several designers of that bomb explaining that the plastic foam layer inside the outer case is to delay ablation and thus recoil of the outer case: if the foam were not there, metal would ablate from the inside of the outer case with a large impulse, causing the casing to recoil outwards rapidly.

The purpose of the casing is to contain the explosion for as long as possible, allowing as much X-ray ablation of the metallic surface of the secondary stage as possible, so it compresses the secondary efficiently, maximizing the fusion yield.

Plastic foam has a low density, so causes a smaller impulse when it ablates than metal does. Two special variations exist that will be discussed in a subsequent section: the cryogenically cooled liquid deuterium device used for the Ivy Mike test, and the putative design of the W88 nuclear warhead—a small, MIRVed version of the Teller—Ulam configuration with a prolate egg or watermelon shaped primary and an elliptical secondary.

Most bombs do not apparently have tertiary "stages"—that is, third compression stage s , which are additional fusion stages compressed by a previous fusion stage.

The fissioning of the last blanket of uranium, which provides about half the yield in large bombs, does not count as a "stage" in this terminology.

The U. This U. If any hydrogen bombs have been made from configurations other than those based on the Teller—Ulam design, the fact of it is not publicly known.

A possible exception to this is the Soviet early Sloika design. In essence, the Teller—Ulam configuration relies on at least two instances of implosion occurring: first, the conventional chemical explosives in the primary would compress the fissile core, resulting in a fission explosion many times more powerful than that which chemical explosives could achieve alone first stage.

Second, the radiation from the fissioning of the primary would be used to compress and ignite the secondary fusion stage, resulting in a fusion explosion many times more powerful than the fission explosion alone.

Finally, efficient bombs but not so-called neutron bombs end with the fissioning of the final natural uranium tamper, something that could not normally be achieved without the neutron flux provided by the fusion reactions in secondary or tertiary stages.

Even such large bombs have been replaced by smaller-yield bunker buster type nuclear bombs see more: nuclear bunker buster.

As discussed above, for destruction of cities and non-hardened targets, breaking the mass of a single missile payload down into smaller MIRV bombs, in order to spread the energy of the explosions into a "pancake" area, is far more efficient in terms of area-destruction per unit of bomb energy.

This also applies to single bombs deliverable by cruise missile or other system, such as a bomber, resulting in most operational warheads in the U.

The idea of a thermonuclear fusion bomb ignited by a smaller fission bomb was first proposed by Enrico Fermi to his colleague Edward Teller in at the start of what would become the Manhattan Project.

Stanislaw Ulam , a co-worker of Teller, made the first key conceptual leaps towards a workable fusion design. Ulam's two innovations that rendered the fusion bomb practical were that compression of the thermonuclear fuel before extreme heating was a practical path towards the conditions needed for fusion, and the idea of staging or placing a separate thermonuclear component outside a fission primary component, and somehow using the primary to compress the secondary.

Teller then realized that the gamma and X-ray radiation produced in the primary could transfer enough energy into the secondary to create a successful implosion and fusion burn, if the whole assembly was wrapped in a hohlraum or radiation case.

Indeed, shortly before his death, and in a last-ditch effort to discredit Ulam's contributions, Teller claimed that one of his own "graduate students" had proposed the mechanism.

The "George" shot of Operation Greenhouse of 9 May tested the basic concept for the first time on a very small scale.

On November 1, , the Teller—Ulam configuration was tested at full scale in the " Ivy Mike " shot at an island in the Enewetak Atoll , with a yield of The device, dubbed the Sausage , used an extra-large fission bomb as a "trigger" and liquid deuterium —kept in its liquid state by 20 short tons 18 metric tons of cryogenic equipment—as its fusion fuel, [ citation needed ] and weighed around 80 short tons 70 metric tons altogether.

The liquid deuterium fuel of Ivy Mike was impractical for a deployable weapon, and the next advance was to use a solid lithium deuteride fusion fuel instead.

In this was tested in the " Castle Bravo " shot the device was code-named Shrimp , which had a yield of 15 megatons 2. Efforts in the United States soon shifted towards developing miniaturized Teller—Ulam weapons that could fit into intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

Further innovation in miniaturizing warheads was accomplished by the mids, when versions of the Teller—Ulam design were created that could fit ten or more warheads on the end of a small MIRVed missile see the section on the W88 below.

The Soviet thermonuclear weapons program was aided heavily by Klaus Fuchs. The idea of a hydrogen bomb arose from discussions between Enrico Fermi and Edward Teller in From Teller lectured at Los Alamos on what he called the "super".

This information was important to the Soviets, but not solely for the information about the US bomb project. The importance of this material was in that it confirmed that the United States were working on their own thermonuclear weapon research.

Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen with two neutrons, which allows for more efficient fusion reactions to occur during the detonation of a nuclear weapon.

Discovering the properties of this radioactive material would allow the Soviet Union to develop a more powerful weapon that requires less fuel.

Following Fuchs's return, experts from the Soviet Union spent a great deal of time researching his findings for themselves. Even though the Soviets did obtain some original ideas, the findings of this research served to confirm Fuchs's notes from the American lectures on the matter.

After his return to England in mid, Fuchs was not again in touch with Soviet intelligence until September , when his controller confirmed the Soviet interest in thermonuclear weapons.

In response Fuchs provided details of the "ongoing theoretical superbomb studies in the U. Under this act, Fuchs did not have routine access to American collaborators like Fermi and Teller.

Fuchs was very close to Teller at Los Alamos, and while there Fuchs had worked on thermonuclear weapons. As Teller later recalled, "he [Fuchs] talked with me and others frequently in depth about our intensive efforts… it was easy and pleasant to discuss my work with him.

He also made impressive contributions, and I learned many technical facts from him. In February the Soviet Union formally began its hydrogen bomb program.

A month later Fuchs again met with Feklisov, an event which "played an exceptional role in the subsequent course of the Soviet thermonuclear bomb program.

The first Soviet fusion design, developed by Andrei Sakharov and Vitaly Ginzburg in before the Soviets had a working fission bomb , was dubbed the Sloika , after a Russian layer cake , and was not of the Teller—Ulam configuration.

It used alternating layers of fissile material and lithium deuteride fusion fuel spiked with tritium this was later dubbed Sakharov's "First Idea".

Though nuclear fusion might have been technically achievable, it did not have the scaling property of a "staged" weapon.

Thus, such a design could not produce thermonuclear weapons whose explosive yields could be made arbitrarily large unlike U.

The fusion layer wrapped around the fission core could only moderately multiply the fission energy modern Teller—Ulam designs can multiply it fold.

Additionally, the whole fusion stage had to be imploded by conventional explosives, along with the fission core, substantially multiplying the amount of chemical explosives needed.

Attempts to use a Sloika design to achieve megaton-range results proved unfeasible. After the United States tested the " Ivy Mike " thermonuclear device in November , proving that a multimegaton bomb could be created, the Soviets searched for an additional design.

The "Second Idea", as Sakharov referred to it in his memoirs, was a previous proposal by Ginzburg in November to use lithium deuteride in the bomb, which would, in the course of being bombarded by neutrons, produce tritium and free deuterium.

The next breakthrough was discovered and developed by Sakharov and Yakov Zel'dovich , that of using the X-rays from the fission bomb to compress the secondary before fusion "radiation implosion" , in early It was the largest nuclear weapon developed and tested by any country.

In work began at Aldermaston to develop the British fusion bomb, with Sir William Penney in charge of the project. British knowledge on how to make a thermonuclear fusion bomb was rudimentary, and at the time the United States was not exchanging any nuclear knowledge because of the Atomic Energy Act of However, the British were allowed to observe the U.

Castle tests and used sampling aircraft in the mushroom clouds , providing them with clear, direct evidence of the compression produced in the secondary stages by radiation implosion.

Because of these difficulties, in British prime minister Anthony Eden agreed to a secret plan, whereby if the Aldermaston scientists failed or were greatly delayed in developing the fusion bomb, it would be replaced by an extremely large fission bomb.

In the Operation Grapple tests were carried out. The first test, Green Granite was a prototype fusion bomb, but failed to produce equivalent yields compared to the U.

The second test Orange Herald was the modified fission bomb and produced kilotons—making it the largest fission explosion ever.

At the time almost everyone including the pilots of the plane that dropped it thought that this was a fusion bomb.

This bomb was put into service in A second prototype fusion bomb Purple Granite was used in the third test, but only produced approximately kilotons.

A second set of tests was scheduled, with testing recommencing in September The first test was based on a "… new simpler design.

A two stage thermonuclear bomb that had a much more powerful trigger". On April 28, a bomb was dropped that yielded 3 megatons—Britain's most powerful test.

Two final air burst tests on September 2 and September 11, , dropped smaller bombs that yielded around 1 megaton each.

American observers had been invited to these kinds of tests. After Britain's successful detonation of a megaton-range device and thus demonstrating a practical understanding of the Teller—Ulam design "secret" , the United States agreed to exchange some of its nuclear designs with the United Kingdom, leading to the US—UK Mutual Defence Agreement.

Instead of continuing with its own design, the British were given access to the design of the smaller American Mk 28 warhead and were able to manufacture copies.

British access to nuclear weapons information was cut-off by the United States at one point due to concerns about Soviet espionage.

Full cooperation was not reestablished until an agreement governing the handling of secret information and other issues was signed.

The People's Republic of China detonated its first hydrogen thermonuclear bomb on June 17, , 32 months after detonating its first fission weapon, with a yield of 3.

A story in The New York Times by William Broad [35] reported that in , a supposed Chinese double agent delivered information indicating that China knew secret details of the U.

W88 warhead, supposedly through espionage. France 's journey in building nuclear weapons began prior to World War II in The development of nuclear weapons was slowed during the country's German invasion.

The United States did not want France to acquire expert knowledge about nuclear weaponry, which ultimately led to the Alsos Mission.

The missions followed closely behind the advancing forward-front to obtain information about how close Germany was to building an atomic weapon.

Following the surrender of the Nazis, Germany was divided into "zones of occupation". The "zone" given to the French was suspected to contain several nuclear research facilities.

The United States conducted Operation Harborage to seize any and all information about nuclear weaponry from the French.

The Operation strategized to have American troops intercede advancing French army, allowing the Americans to seize any German scientists or records as well as destroy the remaining functional facilities.

However it was not until that a tangible goal of building plutonium reactors progressed. Two years later, a reactor was being built and a plutonium separating plant began construction shortly after.

In the question about continuing to explore building an atomic bomb was raised. Ultimately, the Prime Minister decided to continue efforts developing an atomic bomb in secret.

In late , tasks were delegated between the CEA and Defense Ministry to propel atomic development such as finding a test site, providing the necessary uranium, and physical device assembly.

Charles de Gaulle returned to power and was elected France's Fifth Republic's first president in De Gaulle, a strong believer in the nuclear weapons program, approved the country's first nuclear test to take place in one of the early months of It was called " Gerboise Bleue ", translating to "Blue jerboa ".

The bomb used a plutonium implosion design with a yield of 70 kilotons. The French nuclear testing site was moved to the unpopulated French atolls in the Pacific Ocean.

The first test conducted at these new sites was the "Canopus" test in the Fangataufa atoll in French Polynesia on 24 August , the country's first multistage thermonuclear weapon test.

The bomb was detonated from a balloon at a height of metres. The result of this test was significant atmospheric contamination.

France reportedly had great difficulty with its initial development of the Teller-Ulam design, but it later overcame these, and is believed to have nuclear weapons equal in sophistication to the other major nuclear powers.

France and China did not sign or ratify the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of , which banned nuclear test explosions in the atmosphere, underwater, or in outer space.

Between and France carried out more than nuclear tests. France signed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty that same year, and then ratified the Treaty within two years.

France confirmed that its nuclear arsenal contains about warheads, carried by submarine-launched ballistic missiles SLBMs and fighter-bombers in France has four Triomphant-class ballistic missile submarines.

One ballistic missile submarine is deployed in the deep ocean, but a total of three must be in operational use at all times.

The three older submarines are armed with 16 M45 missiles. The newest submarine, "Le Terrible" , was commissioned in , and it has M51 missiles capable of carrying TN 75 thermonuclear warheads.

The air fleet is four squadrons at four different bases. In total, there are 23 Mirage N aircraft and 20 Rafales capable of carrying nuclear warheads.

France's nuclear program has been carefully designed to ensure that these weapons remain usable decades into the future.

On May 11, , India announced that it had detonated a thermonuclear bomb in its Operation Shakti tests "Shakti-I", specifically. Samar Mubarakmand , a Pakistani nuclear physicist, asserted that if Shakti-I had been a thermonuclear test, the device had failed to fire.

Harold M. Agnew , former director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory , said that India's assertion of having detonated a staged thermonuclear bomb was believable.

Rajagopal Chidambaram , former chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission of India said that India has the capability to build thermonuclear bombs of any yield at will.

The yield of India's hydrogen bomb test remains highly debatable among the Indian science community and the international scholars.

In an interview in August , the director for the test site preparations, Dr. Santhanam claimed that the yield of the thermonuclear explosion was lower than expected and that India should therefore not rush into signing the CTBT.

Other Indian scientists involved in the test have disputed Dr. Santhanam's claim, [51] arguing that Santhanam's claims are unscientific.

India officially maintains that it can build thermonuclear weapons of various yields up to around kilotons on the basis of the Shakti-1 thermonuclear test.

Israel is alleged to possess thermonuclear weapons of the Teller—Ulam design, [54] but it is not known to have tested any nuclear devices, although it is widely speculated that the Vela Incident of may have been a joint Israeli—South African nuclear test.

It is well established that Edward Teller advised and guided the Israeli establishment on general nuclear matters for some twenty years.

Congress , after receiving credible information from an "American scientist" Teller , on Israel's nuclear capability. North Korea claimed to have tested its miniaturised thermonuclear bomb on 6 January North Korea's first three nuclear tests , and were relatively low yield and do not appear to have been of a thermonuclear weapon design.

In , the South Korean Defense Ministry speculated that North Korea may be trying to develop a "hydrogen bomb" and such a device may be North Korea's next weapons test.

These seismic recordings cast doubt upon North Korea's claim that a hydrogen bomb was tested and suggest it was a non-fusion nuclear test.

On 3 September , the country's state media reported that a hydrogen bomb test was conducted which resulted in "perfect success". According to the U.

Intelligence released an early assessment that the yield estimate was kilotons, [66] with an uncertainty range of 70 to kilotons.

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The formal decision to develop thermonuclear weapons was made in secret on June 16, , by a small Defence Policy Committee chaired by Churchill.

The prime minister informed the cabinet on July 7, arguing that Britain needed the most modern weapons if it…. Fermi wondered if the explosion of a fission weapon could ignite a mass of deuterium….

h bomb Übersetzung im Kontext von „h-bomb“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Diagram of the h-bomb, teller proposed uses for this the explosion the small. On 1 November , the first US H-bomb explodes on the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean and strengthens the international supremacy of the United. This book, written with unique access to official archives, tells the secret story of Britain's H-bomb - the scientific and strategic background, the government's. Übersetzung von H-bomb – Englisch–Malaiisch Wörterbuch. H-bomb. noun. /​ˈeitʃbom/. ○. short for hydrogen bomb. bom H. (Übersetzung. Fügen Sie H-bomb zu einer der folgenden Listen hinzu oder erstellen Sie eine neue. Weitere. Gehen Sie zu Ihren Wortlisten. Close the sidebar. Sagen Sie uns​.

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Vielen Dank! PAGE 1. In Ihrem Browser filmtheater union Javascript deaktiviert. Mein Suchverlauf Meine Favoriten. Befinden Sie go here in Frankreich? For global finances that would be tantamount to exploding an H-bomb. Übersetzung von H-bomb watch box.de Englisch—Malaiisch Wörterbuch. Your feedback will be reviewed. Registrieren Einloggen. Genau: Atomic Quest. Teller then realized that the gamma and X-ray radiation produced in the primary could transfer enough energy into the secondary to create a successful implosion and fusion burn, if the whole assembly was wrapped click a hohlraum or radiation case. Nuclear Threat Initiative. This process could be continued, with energy from the can team 7 naruto opinion igniting a third fusion stage; Russia's AN " Tsar Bomba " is thought to have been a three-stage unter dornen device. With fuel running low because of the failed fuel pump, Bockscar and The Great Artiste headed for their secondary target, Nagasaki.

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